Leishmania braziliensis

Leishmania braziliensis

Leishmania braziliensis — Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis es un protozoario Trypanosomatida del género Leishmania (subgénero Viannia). Contenido 1 Historia 2 Enfermedad 3 Leishmania braziliensis 4 … Wikipedia Español

Leishmania braziliensis — the type species of the subgenus Viannia, transmitted by species of Lutzomyia and causing cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Central and South America. It is sometimes described as a complex, in which case it includes also the species L … Medical dictionary

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Leishmania donovani — in bone marrow cell Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryota … Wikipedia

Leishmania — A group of parasites causing a disease called leishmaniasis. For a fuller definition and more information, see Leishmania infection. * * * A genus of digenetic, asexual, protozoan flagellates (family Trypanosomatidae) that occur as amastigotes in … Medical dictionary

Leishmania — Taxobox color = khaki name = Leishmania image width = 240px image caption = Leishmania donovani in bone marrow cell. domain = Eukaryota unranked phylum = Excavata phylum = Euglenozoa classis = Kinetoplastida ordo = Trypanosomatida genus =… … Wikipedia

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Leishmania peruviana — a species, of the subgenus Viannia, found in mountainous areas of Peru and Argentina, probably transmitted by Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. peruensis and causing uta in humans. It is considered to be part of the L. braziliensis complex … Medical dictionary

Leishmaniasis — Classification and external resources Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the hand of a Central American adult … Wikipedia

Leishmaniasis

Mucosal Leishmaniasis

A proportion of CL infections (about 1 to 10% in Brazil and Peru) caused by Leishmania braziliensis or L. guyanensis progress to a metastatic infection of the mucosa of the oral/nasal cavity or larynx, often 1 to 5 years after healing of the initial simple cutaneous lesion. Immunopathology results in extensive destruction of local tissue. Allergic rhinitis, paracoccidioidomycosis or other deep mycosis, cancrum oris, leprosy, and sarcoidosis may mimic the lesions of ML. Positive serology (e.g., IFA, ELISA) or LST indicate possible ML. Parasites are scarce in mucosal lesions. Therefore, a search for parasites in mucosal samples—obtained by scraping or biopsy—by microscopic examination or by culture lacks sensitivity. PCR has proved to be the most sensitive approach to confirm ML.

Leishmaniasis

Mucosal Leishmaniasis

A proportion of CL infections (about 1 to 10% in Brazil and Peru) caused by Leishmania braziliensis or L. guyanensis progress to a metastatic infection of the mucosa of the oral/nasal cavity or larynx, often 1 to 5 years after healing of the initial simple cutaneous lesion. Immunopathology results in extensive destruction of local tissue. Allergic rhinitis, paracoccidioidomycosis or other deep mycosis, cancrum oris, leprosy, and sarcoidosis may mimic the lesions of ML. Positive serology (e.g., IFA, ELISA) or LST indicate possible ML. Parasites are scarce in mucosal lesions. Therefore, a search for parasites in mucosal samples—obtained by scraping or biopsy—by microscopic examination or by culture lacks sensitivity. PCR has proved to be the most sensitive approach to confirm ML.

Causas

A leishmaniose é transmitida por insetos hematófagos (que se alimentam de sangue) conhecidos como flebótomos ou flebotomíneos. Os flebótomos medem de 2 a 3 milímetros de comprimento e devido ao seu pequeno tamanho são capazes de atravessar as malhas dos mosquiteiros e telas. Apresentam cor amarelada ou acinzentada e suas asas permanecem abertas quando estão em repouso. Seus nomes variam de acordo com a localidade, os mais comuns são:

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  • Mosquito palha
  • Tatuquira
  • Birigüi
  • Cangalinha
  • Asa branca
  • Asa dura
  • Palhinha.

O mosquito palha ou asa branca é mais encontrado em lugares úmidos, escuros, onde existem muitas plantas.

As fontes de infecção das leishmanioses são, principalmente, os animais silvestres e os insetos flebotomíneos que abrigam o parasita em seu tubo digestivo, porém, o hospedeiro também pode ser o cão doméstico.

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Na leishmaniose cutânea os animais silvestres que atuam como reservatórios são os roedores silvestres, tamanduás e preguiças. Na leishmaniose visceral a principal fonte de infecção é a raposa do campo.

Sintomas

The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological features in tissues of mice infected by human isolates (I, II, and III) or the reference M2903 strain of Leishmania braziliensis complex. BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice were infected in the hind footpad with 10(6) stationary-phase promastigotes of L. braziliensis complex. The evolution of lesions was observed for 10 weeks and the animals were then euthanized and liver, spleen and popliteal lymph nodes were collected. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by immunohistochemistry assay. Increased thickness of infected footpads was observed in all animals, lesions were nodular and non-ulcerated. Mice infected with isolate I presented inflammatory infiltrates consisting predominantly of mononuclear cells in all tissues examined, and also a great number of megakaryocytes, compared with other isolates. Infection with isolate II led to an infected footpad enlargement not seen in other isolates. In addition, mononuclear infiltrates in the liver and hemosiderin in spleen were noted. Conversely, mice infected with either isolate III or M2903 strain only showed an increased number of megakaryocytes in spleen. All tissues examined had detectable amastigote forms of Leishmania by immunohistochemistry in all groups. Taking together, our results showed an unforeseen behavior of different isolates of L. braziliensis complex that led to diverse pathological findings.

Puede encontrarse L. braziliensis por examen microscópico o por cultivo de las biopsias y frotis de los bordes duros de la úlceras, a veces de ganglios linfáticos. La prueba intracutánea de Montenegro con antígenos enteros o fraccionados de cultivo de L. braziliensis parece ser el método diagnostico de elección en hospitales y estudios epidemiológicos. La reacción de tipo tardío se vuelve positiva en una a cuatro semanas después de aparecer la lesión inicial, y persiste toda la vida.

Estibofeno, estilesfibomina, antimicrobianos, imidazólicas y cirugía. Incluso se puede utilizar la meglumina para combatirlo, solo hay que tener en cuenta que puede llegar a causar insuficiencia cardíaca.

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